Agonalia - January 9. Honors
Janus, whom the Romans invoked before undertaking any affair of importance.
Also on May 21 and December 11.
Carmentalia - January 11-15 [or 11th and
Paganalia - January 24-26.
Feralia - Occurred in January.
Faunalia - February 13.
Fornicalia - February. A corn festival in
honor of Fornax.
Parentalia - February 13-21. During this
festival the Romans honoured their ancestors at the family shrines within
their own homes, thus, all other temples remained closed and weddings
Lupercalia - February 15. This feast celebrated
the founding of Rome, and was held in honour of the god Pan. The festival
began with the sacrifice of two goats and a dog, then the bloody knife
was touched to the foreheads of two youths of illustrious descent who
must smile as they are touched, and afterwards, the blood was wiped from
their faces with wool dipped in milk. Following this, the victims were
skinned and their hides cut into thongs out of which were fashioned a
pair of whips. The youths then ran naked around the Palatine Hill and
the city, whipping all they came across. The festival derives its name
from the Greek name for Pan, Lyceus, from ????s, 'a wolf'. The Lupercal,
where the festival was celebrated, lay at the foot of the Aventine Hill,
and was where the she-wolf was reputed to have reared Romulus and Remus,
the twin founders of Rome.
Quirinalia - February 17.
Feast of Fools - February 17. A celebration
for people who had not participated with their curia in the Fornacalia.
Feralia - February 18.
Terminalia - February 23. This festival
marked the end of the ancient Roman year
Regifugium - February 24.
Equiria - February 27.
Matronalia - March 1. A festival held at
Rome in honour of Mars, in commemoration of the rape of the Sabine women.
Only married women could attend the celebrations, during which they made
offerings of flowers in the temples of Juno.
Equiria - March 14.
Ides of March - March 15. It was on the
Ides of March that Julius Caesar was assasinated.
Anna Perenna - March 15. Roman families
traditionally picknicked along the banks of the Tiber.
Liberalia - March 17. Also known as Agonalia.
Quinquatrus - March 19-21.
Tubilustrium - March 23.
Ludi Magalesia - April 4-10. Games in honour
of Cybele, whose sanctuary on the Palatine Hill was dedicated in 191BC.
Fordicidia - April 15. Honored Tellus,
Goddess of Earth, and was observed by slaughtering pregnant cows, taking
the unborn calves from the womb, and burning theim inorder to insure fertility
for the growing corn.
Quinquatria - 18 - 22 April. This popular
festival was held in honour of the goddess Minerva at Rome. The celebrations
lasted for five days, and is the basis for the name of the festival. On
the first day, sacrifices and oblations were offered, though no blood
was spilled, the next three days were taken up mostly with gladiatorial
displays, and on the fifth and final day a solemn procession was held
through the streets of the city. The scholars and pedagogues were also
given a holiday at this time, and it was customary for them to offer up
sacrifices to Minerva, who was their patron goddess. The school-masters
would also receive gifts from their pupils when they resumed lessons at
the end of the holiday; all of these gifts would be accepted in the name
of Minerval. Throughout the festival plays would be enacted and public
discussion of the arts openly encouraged. The festival was also associated
with the opening of the campaign season; during this time the arms, horses
and trumpets of the Army would be ceremoniously purified at Rome. The
ancient 'Dance of the Salii' took place during the Quinquatria on 19 Apr,
and also during the Armilustrium on 19 Oct.
Cerealia - April 19. Celebrates the beginning
of the six vegetative months.
Parilia - April 21. Honored the pastoral
goddes Pales, and was observed by driving sheep through burning straw.
Also called Palilia.
Vinalia - April 23. A festival celebrated
by sampling new wine.
Robigalia - April 25. An ancient religious
festival, on which day foot races were held in Rome.
Floria - April 28 to May 3. The festival
of Flora, the goddess of flowers, during which the Roman wore fresh garlands
of flowers about their necks, and danced through the streets. Instituted
Lemuria - May 9-13.
Ludi Martiales - May 12. Games held in connection
with the dedication of the shrine and temple of Mars Ultor; also held
on 1 Aug.
Ludi Merceruy - May 15. The birthday of
Mercury, who could travel with the speed of thought.
Ambarvalia - May 29.
The Vestalia - June 9. Honors Vesta, the
virgin sister of Zeus, and goddess of hearth and home. In Rome, a perpetual
fire that was dedicated to her was tended by six virgin priestesses, or
Matralia - June 11.
Quinquatrus Minusculoe - June 13.
Ludi Apollinares - July 5. Celebrated with
games in honor of Apollo.
Ludi Victoriae Caesaris - 20 - 30 July.
Games held in celebration of Caesar's conquests.
Neptunalia - July 23.
Nemoralia - August 13. In honor of Diana
the moon goddess, during which slaves were given a holiday.
Portunalia - August 17.
Vinalia Rustica - August 19.
Ludi Consualia - August 21. Honored Consus,
the god of counsel and secret plans, and was celebrated with horse and
Volcanalia - August 23.
Ludi Magni - Ludi Magni begins sep 4th in
honor of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva
Romani - September 5-19.
Meditrinalia - October 11. Celebrated when
a liberation of new wine was made in honor of Meditrina.
Faunalia - October 13.
Equiria - October 15. Celebrated when the
"equus October" was sacrificed to Mars in the Campus Martius.
Armilustrium - October 19. The 'Dance of
the Salii' took place on this festival and also during the Quinquatria
on 19 Apr.
Ludi Victoriae Sullanae - 26 October - 1
November. Games instituted by the dictator Sulla in celebration of his
victories, and dedicated in his honour for up to 200 years after his death
Ludi Plebii - November 4-17. The 'Games
of the Common People' were instituted sometime between 220 and 216BC
Epulum Jovis - November 13.
Faunalia - December 5.
Larentalia - occurred in December.
Agonia - December 11. Observed by sacrificing
victims on the seven hills of Rome.
Saturnalia - December 17-23. The most important
festival of the year was held in honour of Saturn, the god of agriculture.
During the main feast day of this festival, the masters of every household
in Rome waited upon their domestic slaves.
Opalia - December 19. Honored Ops, the goddess
of plenty and fertility.